Study explores optimal training for livestock guardian dogs
The Texas A&M AgriLife Research Center in San Angelo, Texas, is conducting a study on what types of bonding pen experiences produce a better livestock guardian dog (LGD). Bonding pens are fenced pastures where dogs bond with the species of their future charges.
Research to determine if dogs bond better to livestock if raised with siblings or solo.
Currently, Texas A&M AgriLife Research LGD specialist Bill Costanzo is working with six puppies — Moe, Larry, Curly, Thor, Goliath and Hulk — that will spend approximately three months in the bonding pen process in San Angelo. Each bonding pen is an acre in size, and once the bonding process is completed, the dogs will graduate to much larger pastures where they will guard flocks or herds. They will continue to have their behavior monitored until they are approximately 18 months old, the announcement said.
LGDs serve as deterrents to predators such as coyotes, eagles, feral hogs and mountain lions — anything threatening goats, sheep and their young.
“LGDs can be bonded to almost any species,” Costanzo said. “They also do a great job when bonded to poultry. Free-range poultry operations in California are using dogs to guard against predators.”
The class of six puppies are in four bonding pens at the AgriLife Research and Extension Center in San Angelo. The dogs are all male and come from two different litters of livestock guardian dogs with proven genetics. Three puppies are Maremma guardian dogs. The other trio is what’s known as a Texas LGD mix of Akbash, Anatolian Shepherd and Great Pyrenees bloodlines.
“Bonding of LGDs starts at birth with these animals,” Costanzo said. “It is believed that if puppies are not properly bonded by 16 weeks of age, the imprinting in the dog’s brain to guard its charges is not firmly set.”
Improper imprinting could result in dogs who wander and do not stay with their charges. Costanzo thinks bonding from birth to 16 weeks of age is probably the single most important thing to do to establish a strong foundation for future success as a livestock guardian dog.
Studying siblings versus solo
For this first study, there are four bonding pens total, and Costanzo is studying whether these dogs will become better LGDs when raised in bonding pens with a sibling or solo, the announcement said. Each trio of brothers is divided up so that one dog is alone in a pen while his two siblings are together in a different bonding pen.
Costanzo is also studying whether anti-digging deterrents actually prevent dogs from getting out of fenced areas later in life.
These dogs are not pets, but they are cared for and trained for real-world situations. They are walked on leashes a few times a week, groomed and ride in vehicles so they become comfortable traveling between different locations or going to the vet.
“These are dogs that instinctively want to protect, so they need to be bonded to sheep and goats so that natural instinct to guard is focused on the animals, rather than on humans,” Costanzo added.
At the San Angelo station, the puppies are exposed to both sheep and goats since their future duties could involve protecting both types of animals. After graduation, the puppies will most likely guard flocks and herds belonging to AgriLife Research, the announcement said. The plan is for two to remain in San Angelo, two will work at the Martin Research Ranch in Menard, Texas, and two will be at the Sonora Station. The siblings that were in bonding pens together will remain in pairs working together to quantify the impact of bonding with another guardian dog.
“There is debate within the LGD breeding community regarding how much interaction with humans is ideal,” said Dr. Reid Redden, AgriLife Extension sheep and goat specialist. “Some people prefer that LGD have no interaction with humans. These dogs often become fearful of humans and are difficult to manage.
“Other people prefer that LGD have daily contact with humans. These dogs could bond with people too much and not stay with their livestock. Through this project and future efforts, we aim to build a data set of rearing LGDs with an array of bonding experiences and document the LGDs effectiveness at guarding livestock,” Redden added.
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